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However, if pseudomonas is not a consideration, treatment is very similar to treatment in the general wards.
In those patients with severe penicillin allergies, a combination of a respiratory fluoroquinolone plus aztreonam can be substituted for treatment.
Pathogens There are both bacterial and viral causes of CAP.
The most common cause of CAP is A thorough patient history is also useful to identify other potential bacterial pathogens depending on their individual risk factors (Table 1).
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Descriptions of pneumonia have been found as early as 350 BC and despite the medical advances that have occurred over the centuries, it continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the 21st century.
Antimicrobial resistance should also be a consideration during antibacterial selection.
There are 2 separate, validated severity indices that can be used to make this determination—the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, low blood pressure and age 65 years old) criteria (Table 2).
With both systems, the higher the score, the higher the mortality, thus the need for hospitalization during treatment.
As stated, hospitalized patients are at the highest risk for drug resistance, including methicillin-resistant (MRSA).
In patients that have risk factors for community-acquired MRSA pneumonia, MRSA treatment with vancomycin, ceftaroline, or linezolid should be added in addition to coverage for the other known CAP pathogens.